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Ionian Islands: Vision 2020, ή Ιόνια Νησιά: Όραμα 2020. Το ιστολόγιο καλεί εμάς τους Επτανήσιους να οραματιστούμε τα νησιά μας στο τέλος της δεκαετίας. Επιλέχθηκε ο Αγγλικός τίτλος τόσο γιατί επισημαίνει τον ανοικτό χαρακτήρα του πολιτισμού μας όσο και γιατί Vision 2020 στα Αγγλικά σημαίνει και τέλεια όραση. Κάθε Επτανήσιος, ή φίλος των Επτανήσων είναι ευπρόσδεκτος να καταθέσει τις απόψεις του και να συμμετέχει μέσω του ιστολογίου σε διάλογο.


Γιά να διευκολυνθεί ο διάλογος αναρτώνται σε διαφορετικές σελίδες του ιστολογίου αντικείμενα προς συζήτηση τα οποία χαρακτηρίζονται σαν "Θέματα". Γιά κάθε θέμα

αναρτάται ένα εισαγωγικό κείμενο το οποίο προσδιορίζει το αντικείμενο του διαλόγου. Οι αναγνώστες καλούνται να ανταλλάξουν απόψεις και να κάνουν προτάσεις σχετικά με το συγκεκριμένο αντικείμενο. Κατά τακτά χρονικά διαστήματα οι απόψεις και οι προτάσεις των αναγνωστών συνοψίζονται και παρατίθενται στο εισαγωγικό κείμενο.


Τα πρώτα θέματα που τίθενται γιά συζήτηση είναι:

Θέμα 1. Μη ισότιμη αντιμετώπιση των Ιόνιων νησιών από την Ελληνική πολιτεία. Μύθος ή πραγματικότητα;

Θέμα 2. Αυθόρμητη απάντηση στην ερώτηση "Πως θα ήθελες να είναι τα Ιόνια νησιά το 2020;"


Πρόσφατες αναρτήσεις:

[Διάβρωση των Επτανησιακών παραλιών, μία λυπηρή πραγματικότητα; Τι μπορεί να γίνει;]

[Κυβερνητικές επιλογές και Ιόνια: Ο μονόδρομος της απώλειας. Μέρος 3ο]

[Κυβερνητικές επιλογές και Ιόνια: Ο μονόδρομος της απώλειας. Μέρος 2ο]

[Κυβερνητικές επιλογές και Ιόνια: Ο μονόδρομος της απώλειας. Μέρος 1ο]

[Λιμεναρχείο Κέρκυρας: Ιλαροτραγωδία της τοπικής ΝΔ και πρώτο τεστ γιά τον ΣΥΡΙΖΑ]

[Τα Επτάνησα και η προίκιση των απέναντι αστικών κέντρων]

[Ιόνιες σεισμικές δονήσεις]

[Η Περιφέρεια Ιονίων Νήσων στα δόντια του νεο-Ελληνικού κατεστημένου]

[Χωροταξικό Περιφέρειας Ιονίων Νήσων. Άρθρο Δρ. Γιάννη Βραδή]

[ΙΟΝΙΑ ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ Επιλογή με παρελθόν, παρόν και μέλλον. Άρθρο Δρ Κ. Καποδίστρια]

[Διάσπαση του δήμου Κέρκυρας: Βελτίωση της ζωής των πολιτών ή Ευνουχισμός των Επτανήσων;]

[Το Επτανησιακό προφίλ του ΣΥΡΙΖΑ: Η Περιφέρεια Ιονίων Νήσων είναι τεχνητό κατασκεύασμα και προτείνεται να διασπαστεί]

[ΑΙΡΕΤΟΙ ΞΥΠΝΗΣΤΕ!]

[Επτανησιακός χωροταξικός σχεδιασμός]

[Ομιλία Γιάννη Βραδή γιά την παιδεία και τον πολιτισμό στο προσυνέδριο Β. Ιονίου των Ανεξάρτητων Ελλήνων στην Κέρκυρα, 17/02/13]

[Οι Επτανήσιοι πρέπει δυναμικά να απαιτήσουμε ίση μεταχείριση με τους υπόλοιπους Έλληνες]

[Το πανεπιστήμιο της Ινσουλάρια και η πολιτιστική καταστροφή της]

[Γιατί φαίνεται απαξιωτική η στάση της Ελλάδας απέναντι στα Επτάνησα;]

[Το βασίλειο της Μαλάκουα και το πανεπιστήμιο της πόλης της Ντορμίρης]

[Δίκτυο Λιμένων Δυτικής Ελλάδας και ο ευνουχισμός της Κέρκυρας]

[Καλούδης: Συγκοινωνιακές Υποδομές Ιονίων Νήσων: Να συζητηθούν στο Περιφερειακό]

[Η Καταλωνία απαιτεί ανεξαρτησία από την Ισπανία, ανοίγονται οι ασκοί του Αιόλου;]

[Για ποιον θα μιλήσω σήμερα;]

[Νησιωτικότητα και Επτανησιακή συνείδηση]

[Τι ακριβώς σημαίνει Επτανησιακή και Ιονική ταυτότητα;]

[Επιστολή στον Υπ. Οικονομικών (Υποβάθμιση Επτανήσων)]

[Ιόνια Αμφισβήτηση]

[Ο Οίκος Ενοχής]

[Επτάνησα και Ελλάδα, τι συμβαίνει;]

[Ο πληθυσμός της Κέρκυρας ίσως να είναι σημαντικά μεγαλύτερος από αυτόν που ανακοινώθηκε μετά την απογραφή του 2011]

[Το μέλλον του Ιονίου Πανεπιστημίου και του ΤΕΙ Ιονίων Νήσων]

[Διάσωση του Ιονίου Πανεπιστημίου και του ΤΕΙ Ιονίων Νήσων]


Η Συνθήκη του Λονδίνου, 1864

Γιά το Ελληνικό κείμενο της συνθήκης πιέστε "Έγγραφα Επίσημα Αφορώντα τας επί του Επτανησιακού Ζητήματος Διαπραγματεύσεις".



Treaty of London
(29 March 1864)
The τreaty signed in London by the three Great Powers, Britain, France and Russia, on the one hand, and Greece on the other, ceded the Ionian Islands –which had never been conquered by the Ottomans– to the Kingdom of Greece. From the mid-fourteenth to the eighteenth century, the Ionian Islands had been under Venetian rule. When the sovereignty of Venice was overthrown by Napoleon (1797), the islands were recognised as independent (1800). The Paris Treaty of 1815 established the ‘United States of the Ionian Islands’ under British protection and the rule of a British High Commissioner.1 Despite the Constitution granted to the Ionian Islands in 1817 and the reform law of 1823, social disturbances and conflict forced Britain to consider imposing martial law. At a Cabinet meeting on 8 December 1862,2 under Foreign Secretary Palmerston, it was decided that the islands would be ceded to Greece – a policy favoured by Queen Victoria herself. There were three reasons for this decision. First, the islands had ceased to be of much significance to Britain since it could maintain its control of the seas from the much more strategic position of Malta. Second, the maintenance of British sovereignty in the area was proving too costly, and finally, Queen Victoria hoped that the cession of the islands would weaken Russia’s hold on Greece by allowing the latter to realise one of its national aspirations at a negligible cost to Britain. Furthermore, the Danish Court had made the territorial expansion of Greece one of the conditions for George’s acceptance of the Greek throne. The provisions of the treaty signed in London on 14 November 1863 were initially drawn up without Greek participation. After prolonged negotiations, however, the terms were altered to the satisfaction of Greece, before a new treaty was finally signed by Charilaos Trikoupis, the Greek delegate, on 29 March 1864. As a result, Greece now appeared as a High Contracting Party, whereas under the November 1863 Treaty, the Royal Councils of Europe had avoided entering into an agreement directly with the government of King George. Moreover, in the event of a war with the Ottoman Empire, the neutrality of the islands was only restricted to Corfu and Paxoi. In the absence of any new trade agreements, the privileges enjoyed by foreign nationals as well as commercial benefits would continue to apply for a period of ten years. The only contested provision of the 1863 text which was not altered, at the insistence of the French Emperor, was that concerning the protection of the privileges of the Latin Church.
The Ionian Islands were formally united with the Kingdom of Greece on 2 June 1864. This was the first expansion of the Greek kingdom since its foundation. The national territory increased by 1,813 square miles and the population by 236,000. However, the incorporation of the Ionian Islands to Greece also increased the economic burdens of the Greek state.
TREATY* between Great Britain, France, Russia, and Greece, respecting the Union of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece. Signed at London, 29th March, 18641
ART. TABLE.
Preamble. Reference to Treaty of 5th November, 1815.
1. Renunciation of Great Britain to Protectorate over the Ionian Islands. Union of Ionian Islands to Greece.
2. Perpetual Neutrality of Ionian Islands. Greece to maintain the Neutrality.
3. Treaties, &c., of Commerce and Navigation between Great Britain and Foreign Powers relative to Ionian Islands to remain in force until conclusion of New Treaty. Terms within which New Commercial Treaties are to be concluded.
4. Freedom of Worship and Religious Toleration.
5. Provision of Ionian Islands towards the Civil List of the King of the Hellenes.
6. Relinquishment by Protecting Powers of portion of the Annual Sums to be paid to them by Greece. Amounts relinquished to form Annual Dotation of King of Greece.
7. Contracts between Ionian Islands and Foreign Powers to be maintained by King of the Hellenes.
8. Pensions, &c., to British and Ionian Subjects to be paid by Greece, Special Convention to regulate amounts.
9. Withdrawal of British Forces from the Ionian Islands.
10. Ratifications.
Reference to Treaty of 5th November, 1815.
In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.
HER Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland made known to the Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands that, with a view to the eventual union of those Islands to the Kingdom of Greece, she was prepared, if the Ionian Parliament should express a wish to that effect, to abandon the Protectorate of those Islands, confided to Her Majesty by the Treaty concluded at Paris on the 5th November, 1815, between the Courts of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Such wish having been expressed by a vote of the said Legislative Assembly passed unanimously on the 7/19th October, 1863, Her Britannic Majesty consented by Article I of the Treaty concluded on the 14th November, 1863, between Her Majesty, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of All the Russias, to renounce the said Protectorate under certain conditions specified in that Treaty, and since defined by subsequent Protocols.
On their part, their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of All the Russias, consented by the same Article, and under the same conditions, to accept such Renunciation, and to recognise, in conjunction with Her Britannic Majesty, the Union of those Islands to the Kingdom of Greece.
In virtue of Article V of the Treaty signed at London on the 13th July, 1863, it was moreover agreed by common consent between Her Britannic Majesty and their Majesties the Emperor of the French and the Emperor of All the Russias, that the Ionian Islands, when their Union to the Kingdom of Greece should have been effected, as contemplated by Article IV of the same Treaty, should be comprised in the Guarantee stipulated in favour of Greece by the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in virtue of the Convention signed at London on the 7th May, 1832.
In consequence, and in accordance with the stipulations of the Treaty of the 13th July, 1863, and with the terms of Article VI of the Treaty of the 14th November, 1863, whereby the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in their character of Guaranteeing Powers of the Kingdom of Greece, reserved to themselves to conclude a Treaty with the Hellenic Government as to the arrangements which might become necessary in consequence of the Union of the Ionian Islands to Greece, their said Majesties have resolved to proceed to negotiate with His Majesty the King of the Hellenes a Treaty for the purpose of carrying into execution the stipulations above mentioned.
His Majesty the King of the Hellenes having given his assent to the conclusion of such Treaty, their said Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable John Earl Russell, Viscount Amberley of Amberley and Ardsalla, a Peer of the United Kingdom, a Member of Her Britannic Majesty’s Privy Council, her Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;
His Majesty the Emperor of the French, the Sieur Godefroy Bernard Henry Alphonse, Prince de la Tour d’ Auvergne Lauraguais, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c.;
His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, the Sieur Philip Baron de Brunnow, his Actual Privy Councillor, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c.;
And His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, the Sieur Charilaüs S.Tricoupi, a Representative in the National Assembly of the Hellenes;
Who, after having exchanged their Full Powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following Articles:
Renunciation of Great Britain to Protectorate over the Ionian
Islands.
ART. I. Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, desiring to realise the wish expressed by the Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands, that those Islands should be united to Greece, has consented, on the conditions hereinafter specified, to renounce the Protectorate over the Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo and Paxo, with their Dependencies, which, in virtue of the Treaty signed at Paris on the 5th November, 1815, by the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, were constituted a single Free and Independent State, under the denomination of «the United States of the Ionian Islands» placed under the immediate and exclusive Protection of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors.
Union of Ionian Islands to Greece.
In consequence, Her Britannic Majesty, His Majesty the Emperor of the French, and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, in their character of signing parties to the Convention of the 7th May, 1832, recognise such Union, and declare that Greece, within the Limits determined by the arrangement concluded at Constantinople between the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, and the Ottoman Porte, on the 21st July, 1832, including the Ionian Islands, shall from [sic] a Monarchical, Independent, and Constitutional State, under the Sovereignty of His Majesty King George, and under the Guarantee of the 3 Courts.
Perpetual Neutrality of Ionian Islands.2
ART.II. The Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in their character of Guaranteeing Powers of Greece, declare, with the assent of the Courts of Austria and Prussia, that the Islands of Corfu and Paxo, as well as their Dependencies, shall, after their Union to the Hellenic Kingdom, enjoy the advantages of perpetual Neutrality.
Greece to maintain the Neutrality.
His Majesty the King of the Hellenes engages, on his part, to maintain such Neutrality.
Treaties, &c., of Commerce and Navigation between Great Britain and Foreign Powers relative to Ionian Islands to remain in force until conclusion of New Treaty.3
ART.III. The Union of the Ionian Islands to the Hellenic Kingdom shall not involve any change as to the advantages conceded to Foreign Commerce and Navigation in virtue of Treaties and Conventions concluded by Foreign Powers with Her Britannic Majesty, in her character of Protector of the Ionian Islands.
All the engagements which result from the said transactions, as well as from the regulations actually in force in relation thereto, shall be maintained and strictly observed, as hitherto.
In consequence, it is expressly understood that Foreign Vessels and Commerce in Ionian ports, as well as the Navigation between Ionian ports and the ports of Greece, shall continue to be subject to the same treatment, and placed under the same conditions as before the Union of the Ionian Islands to Greece, until the conclusion of new formal Conventions, or of arrangements destined to regulate between the parties concerned, questions of Commerce and Navigation, as well as questions relating to the regular service of communication by post.
Terms within which new Commercial Treaties are to be concluded.
Such new Conventions shall be concluded in 15 years, or sooner, if possible.4
Freedom of Worship and Religious Toleration.
ART.IV. The Union of the United States of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece shall in no wise invalidate the principles established by the existing legislation of those Islands with regard to Freedom of Worship and Religious Toleration; accordingly the Rights and Immunities established in matters of Religion by Chapters I and V of the Constitutional Charter of the United States of the Ionian Islands, and specifically the recognition of the Orthodox Greek Church as the Dominant Religion in those Islands; the entire Liberty of Worship granted to the Established Church of the Protecting Power; and the perfect Toleration promised to other Christian communions shall, after the Union, be maintained in their full force and effect.
The special Protection guaranteed to the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the advantages of which that Church is actually in possession, shall be equally maintained; and the subjects belonging to that communion shall enjoy in the Ionian Islands the same Freedom of Worship which is recognised in their favour by the Protocol of the 3rd February, 1830.
The principle of entire Civil and Political Equality between subjects belonging to different Creeds, established in Greece by the same Protocol, shall be likewise in force in the Ionian Islands.
Provision of Ionian Islands towards the Civil List of the King of
the Hellenes.
ART.V. The Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands has decreed by a Resolution passed on the 7/19th October, 1863, that the sum of £10,000 sterling a year shall be appropriated, in monthly payments, to the augmentation of the Civil List of His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, so as to constitute the first charge upon the revenue of the Ionian Islands, unless provision be made for such payment, according to the constitutional forms, out of the revenues of the Kingdom of Greece.
In consequence, His Majesty the King of the Hellenes engages to carry that Decree duly into execution.
Relinquishment by Protecting Powers of portion of the Annual
Sums to be paid to them by Greece.
Art.VI. Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the Emperor of the French, and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, agree to relinquish in favour of His Majesty King George I, each £4,000 sterling a year, out of the sums which the Greek Treasury has engaged to pay annually to each of them, in virtue of the arrangement concluded at Athens by the Greek Government, with the concurrence of the Greek Chambers, in the month of June, 1860.
Amounts relinquished to form Personal Dotation
of King of Greece.
It is expressly understood that these 3 sums, forming a total of £12,000 sterling annually, shall be destined to constitute a Personal Dotation of His Majesty King George I, in addition to the Civil List fixed by the law of the State. The Accession of His Majesty to the Hellenic Throne shall not otherwise involve any change in the financial engagements which Greece has contracted by Article XII of the Convention of 7th May, 1832, towards the Powers Guarantees of the Loan, nor in the execution of the engagement taken by the Hellenic Government in the month of June, 1860, upon the representation of the 3 Courts.5
Contracts between Ionian Islands and Foreign Powers to be maintained by King of the Hellenes.
ART.VII. His Majesty the King of the Hellenes engages to take upon himself all the Engagements and Contracts lawfully concluded by the Government of the United States of the Ionian Islands, or in their name, by the Protecting Power of those Islands, conformably to the Constitution of the Ionian Islands, whether with Foreign Governments, with Companies and Associations, or with Private Individuals; and promises to fulfil the said Engagements and Contracts fully and completely, as if they had been concluded by His Majesty or by the Hellenic Government. Under this head are specially included: the Public Debt of the Ionian Islands; the Privileges conceded to the Ionian Bank, to the Navigation Company known under the name of the Austrian Lloyds, in conformity with the Postal Convention of the 1st December, 1853, and to the Malta and Mediterranean Gas Company.
Pensions, &c., to British and Ionian Subjects to be Paid by Greece.
ART.VIII. His Majesty the King of the Hellenes promises to take upon himself,
1. The Pensions granted to British Subjects by the Ionian Government, in conformity with the rules established in the Ionian Islands respecting Pensions.
2. The Compensation Allowances due to certain individuals actually in the service of the Ionian Government, who will lose their employments in consequence of the Union of the Islands to Greece.
3. The Pensions which several Ionian Subjects are in the enjoyment of, in remuneration of services rendered to the Ionian Government.
Special Convention to regulate Amounts.
A Special Convention to be concluded between Her Britannic Majesty and His Majesty the King of the Hellenes shall determine the amounts of these different heads, and shall regulate the mode of their payment.
Withdrawal of British Forces from the Ionian Islands.
Art. IX. The Civil authorities and the Military Forces of Her Britannic Majesty shall be withdrawn from the Territory of the United States of the Ionian Islands in 3 months, or sooner, if possible, after the Ratification of the present Treaty.
Ratifications.6
ART.X. The present Treaty shall be ratified and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at London in 6 weeks, or sooner, if possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the Seal of their Arms.
Done at London, the 29th of March, in the year of Our Lord, 1864.
(L.S.) RUSSELL.
(L.S.) CH.TRICOUPI.
(L.S.) LA TOUR D’AUVERGNE.
(L.S.) BRUNNOW.

3 σχόλια:

  1. Ισχυει σημερα? Υπηρξε ποτε στο παρελθον ενδιαμεση συμφωνια μεταξυ των δυο πλευρων που να ακυρωνει την πρωτη?

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  2. Δεν νομίζω ότι υπήρξε κάποια άλλη συμφωνία μετά την συνθήκη του Λονδίνου. Πάντως μόλις ανήρτησα με σύνδεσμο στην κορυφή της σελίδας, αρκετό υλικό σχετικό με τη σύναψη της συνθήκης όπως μου το έστειλε ένας φίλος.

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  3. Η ερώτησίς μου είναι: Εάν ή συνθήκη τού Λονδίνου τηρήθηκε από τό Ελληνικό Κράτος είς τό έπακρον, διότι σ'αντίθετη περίπτωση ΚΑΚΩΣ - ΚΑΚΙΣΤΑ , εξακολουθεί καί ισχύει ή "ένωσις" ! Σ'αυτήν τήν περίπτωση ή Κέρκυρα (καί τά υπόλοιπα Επτάνησα) έπρεπε νά επανέλθουν σέ καθεστώς...τουλάχιστον Αυτονομίας !

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